Working Paper on Sustainable Labour Market Reintegration of Returnees Vacancy in Ethiopia
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Labour migration can provide a safety valve to reduce the pressures on national labour markets that do not provide sufficient opportunities for decent work; at the same time migrant workers fill the skills gap and meet labour market demands, thereby helping countries of destination sustain their economic growth. Growing numbers of migrant workers from East, North, and West Africa are also migrating to the Arab States to work in construction, manufacturing, agriculture, services and retail trade, and domestic and care work. According to UNDESA, the stock of migrants from African countries in the GCC in 2017 was estimated to be over 3.4 million. The most popular destination countries for migrants from African countries were the UAE, KSA and Qatar. While comprehensive data from IGAD Region is limited, evidence shows a considerable increase in flow of migrant workers from the IGAD region to the GCC and middle east countries.
It is evident that labour migration, if well- managed, can bring benefits to countries of origin, countries of destination as well as migrant workers and their families. Migrant workers play a key role in meeting labour market demands in countries of destination, increasing labour productivity through diversifying skills sets, boost local consumption, pay taxes and make social contributions as well as innovation and creativity, thereby contributing to aggregate GDP growth of countries of destination. Migrant workers also contribute to the development of countries of origin through remittances while abroad and financial investments, as well as human and social capital acquired abroad including new skills, ideas and know-how up on their return. Despite the benefits of labour migration, migrant workers experience a range of challenges and decent work deficits when seeking to obtain employment, during their stay in the country of destination and up on their return to their own countries.
Returning migrant workers, especially those who are forcefully repatriated, also face difficulties in reintegrating into local labour markets. Returnees face several challenges affecting their smooth reintegration into society and the labour market due to limited access to the information required to equip them to navigate the changes that occurred in their home countries while they were away, and they found settling in very difficult as many things had changed. In addition, they might be left with limited financial resources.
Owing to the COVID 19, all IGAD member states are experienced a large number of returnees from the Middle East and other countries of destination. Many returnees are returning to their countries of origin without resources. According to the assessment on the impact of COVID 19 on migrant workers in and from the IGAD region, numerous returnees arrive in COOs empty-handed, and this has been especially true since the start of the pandemic. Some employers in the Gulf have kept these migrant workers’ salaries, as they had not completed their contracts and the employers only pay them annually. Many were also in an irregular status abroad and vulnerable to exploitation. There are a number of structural and circumstantial challenges that can prevent the socio-economic reintegration of migrant workers in their countries. A prolonged stay abroad often creates challenges for returnees to find employment opportunities, primarily due to the loss of contact with prior networks in their home country. Other factors related to the capacity of the country of origin to facilitate the reintegration process. Many countries are unable to support their effective reintegration, principally due to the lack of institutional capacity, as well as human and financial resources. When back home, returnees may not have access to up-to-date information about employment services and current labour market situation. As a result, many returnees are concentrated in low-skilled informal employment or under-regulated sectors. Moreover, as the return was unexpected, unplanned and sudden, some even returned with unpaid wages and benefits. Their return has also affected their entire family, as the remittance they use to send have stopped with their return, in addition, the returnee themselves is additional burden in the scarce resources available for the household.
Against this backdrop, the FMPT project is looking for the service of an individual consultant/ external collaborator to produce a working paper on sustainable labour market reintegration of returning migrant workers drawing on existing literature and review of the experiences in the IGAD region, particularly Ethiopia.
The overall objective of the assignment is to produce a working paper on sustainable reintegration of returnees into the local labour markets drawing on global and regional policy frameworks and practical experiences and lessons learned in supporting labour market reintegration of returnees.. More specifically the working paper needs to look into:
- Provide a general overview about reintegration of returnees in the IGAD region, including different programs and approaches on return and reintegration of returnees
- Present challenges, opportunities, good practices, and lessons learned in facilitating and supporting labour market reintegration of returnees in and from outside IGAD region
- Provide practical recommendations and policy options to ensure sustainable labour market reintegration of returnees in the IGAD region;
The consultant is expected to produce the working paper based on a review of existing literature and key informant interviews with key stakeholders as explained below. to draw practical lessons and experience in facilitating sustainable labour market reintegration of returnees in the IGAD region in general and in Ethiopia in particular . In this regard, while the consultant is expected to travel to Ethiopia to conduct filed work and meet with key stakeholders as a case study, S/he is expected to conduct key informant interviews with key stakeholders in the IGAD region. To this end, among other things the consultant is expected to use the following methods:
- Desk Review: the consultant is expected to thoroughly review available research in the area of reintegration of returnees in general and labour market reintegration of returnees in the IGAD region. To this end, he/she is expected to review latest academic and non-academic journals, articles and publication in the field. S/he is also expected to review different regional and global policy instruments and guidelines and publicaitons on experiences and lessons learned in supporting and facilitating sustainable reintegration of returnees in the region and other parts of the world
- Key Informant interview: S/he will conducted key informat interviews with key stallholders to draw practical lessons, challenges, good practices in facilitating sustainable labour market reintegration of returnees in the IGAD region in general and in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is selected as a case study for this assignment owing to its experience in reintegration of returnees and ongoing project and programs on the subject. Therefore, while the consultant will be travelling to Ethiopia to conduct filed work and meet with key stakeholders as a case study, S/he is expected to conduct key informant interviews with key stakeholders including experts in ILO, IGAD, IGAD member states, social partners, UN agencies, NGOs and CSO virtually.
- Main Deliverables
The main outputs expected from the consultant are:
- Inception report which shows the expert’s/consultant’s understanding of the assignment, draft outline of the working paper and work plan.
- Draft working paper: the consultant will submit the draft working paper for review and comments by the ILO, IGAD and other key stakeholders as required.
- Revised working paper: the consultant will submit a revised draft working paper incorporating comments from the ILO, IGAD and other stakeholders to the satisfaction of the ILO.
- Final working paper: the consultant will submit a final working paper between 10 to 15 pages addressing any outstanding comments from stakeholders as well as proofreader and editor of the paper to the satisfaction of the ILO.
The assignment is expected to be completed over eight weeks time from the signing of the agreement.
- Required Competency and Qualifications
The consultant is expected to have:
- Post graduate degree in social sciences disciplines such as Development Studies, Economics, political science, migration or international relations.
- Ten years of experience in the field of migration.
- Five years of experience in conducting and managing multi-country research activities and providing consultancy services in the field of migration for international organizations;
- Excellent report writing skills and ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing,
- Good computer application skills including use zoom, skype and other teleconferencing applications, managing and administering online surveys as well as extracting and analyzing data using appropriate tools and methods.
- Excellent knowledge and understanding about labour migration issues in Africa in general and the horn of Africa in particular and
- Experience in working with UN agencies and multi-lateral organizations and institutions such as AU, IGAD and other Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
- Evaluation Process and Criteria
The evaluation process would be as shown below. In summary, the proposals will be evaluated on a weighted score of 70/30 for Technical/Financial relative score of 70/30.
Technical proposal evaluation criteria
In evaluating the technical proposal, the score allotted in the next table shall be used.
1. Consultant’s Qualification and Experience (Max. Score 40)
- Possess Post graduate degree in social sciences disciplines such as Development Studies, Economics, political science or international relations from a reputable university.
- Five years of experience in conducting and managing multi country research activities and providing consultancy services in the field of migration for UN agencies, International organizations and Regional economic communities reintegration
- Excellent knowledge and understanding about labour migration issues in Africa in general and the horn of Africa in particular.
- Excellent report writing and analytical skills
2. Proposed Methodology and Approach (Max. Score 20)
- overall quality and responsiveness of the proposed
- Realistic implementation plan /
- Major risks and mitigation options identified in the proposal
3. Overall quality of the proposal (Max. Score 10)
The minimum total score required from the technical proposal to be able to proceed for evaluating the financial proposal will be 49/70 which is an equivalent of 70%
Evaluation of the Financial Proposal
The financial proposal offers having passed the technical review will be considered. The financial offer will account for 30% of the final score. The maximum number of points assigned to the financial proposal will be allocated to the lowest priced proposal. All other price proposals receive pro-rated points according to the following formula: p = y (x/z), where: p = points for the financial proposal being evaluated y = maximum number of points for the financial proposal x = price of the lowest priced proposal z = price of the proposal being evaluated. The proposal obtaining the overall highest score, after adding the score of the technical and the financial proposals, is the one that offers best value for money.
The financial proposal should detail all lines of envisaged expenditure. For each line, the unit cost, the quantity of units, and the total cost should be provided.
Technical and Financial Proposal evaluation will be based on the following percentage combination:
Technical Proposal 70
Financial proposal 30
8. Management Arrangements and work Plan: The consultant will work under the direct supervision of the project Chief Technical Adviser and Technical officer based in Djibouti. S/He will also get technical back stopping support from ILO experts in the region and Headquarters.
9. Note to Consultants:
- All CVs submitted should include the Date of Birth and Nationality of the Consultant.
- Consultant should quote in USD prices and/or using prices calculated using the Official UN Exchange Rates for the country.
- Consultants should indicate a proposed Start and End Date for completion of the Deliverables requested by the ILO.
- Candidates should be prepared to submit a copy of their national Passport upon Notification of Award.
- Candidates planning field visits, movements, and/or DSA travel dates are required to complete the UN BSAFE security-training course upon Notification of Award. Failure to complete the course will prevent the finalization of contracting between the Consultant and the ILO;
- Professional Fees should include all costs associated with the Activity Deliverable.
- Consultants are responsible for arranging their own travel arrangements to target countries.
- All mission cost days will be paid based upon actual receipts paid by the Consultant and actual travel/mission dates.
- Consultants are not to add the VAT to their financial offer unless they are a VAT Registered Individual with the Sudanese VAT Authority.
- Consultants should be aware that all intellectual property rights arising from the contract are vested with the ILO however authorship will be acknowledged by the Organization; and
- Consultants will bear all charges levied by their own bank in receiving of managing funds transferred by ILO.
- The applying consultant shall not in any circumstance, be entitled to any payments other than those expressly provided in the proposal and agreed upon.
The ILO will not cover any other costs for example transportation, hotel accommodation or daily subsistence allowance payments or other costs related to custom other than the proposed and agreed amount in the contract. The individual contractor bears any charges levied by its own bank. Payment will be made according to ILO rules and regulations as follows:
1. Upon satisfactory submission of the inception report, 20% will be paid
- Submit assignment inception report; including methodology, assignment works detailed schedule/plan, field mission agenda …etc.
2. Upon satisfactory submission of progress report, after compiling the deliverables,60% will be paid
- Submit a draft working paper
3. Upon satisfactory submission of the final working paper , 20% will be paid.
- Submit the final draft working paper
- Receive and incorporate changes and submit a final report.
4. Mission and travel costs to be paid once it is conducted and invoices presented.
- To be paid when requested, presenting invoices
How to apply
The bidding consultant should provide Curriculum Vitae, and proven technical expertise:
- Interested applicants (individuals only) should submit their technical and financial proposal in a separate email with the subject to “application: Preparation of working paper on the reintegration of returnees in the IGAD Region – Technical Proposal” and “application Preparation of working paper on on the reintegration of returnees in the IGAD Region– Financial Proposal” to: ADDIS_PROCUREMENT@ilo.org latest by 05 September 2022, 5:00 pm East Africa time;
- The CVs must pinpoint relevant experience in the area, highlight comparative advantages
- Technical proposal indicating clear work plan, number of days required to conduct the assignment in the field.
- The interested individual consultants are requested to provide a separate financial offer that is deliverable-based AND includes ONLY professional fees related to the activity.
- All prices should be submitted in USD. If a proposal is submitted in a currency other than USD, the ILO will convert all prices in to USD using the UN official exchange rate at the date of application to facilitate comparison and evaluation;
- Those applying as team of consultants or firms will be disqualified.
- The proposal and all correspondances and documents related to the proposal shall be written in English;
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